Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The prediction that a “single ironclad, in the midst of a hostile wooden fleet, would resemble a … He would later go on to become Commandant of the Marine Corps. As the combat between ironclads was the primary significance of the battle, the general verdict is that the overall result was a draw.All would acknowledge that the Southern fleet inflicted far more dama… It must be confessed that both ships were queer-looking craft, as grotesque to the eyes of the men of '62 as they would appear to those of the present generation.". Corrections? There was a scramble for the spar-deck and a rush overboard. Library of Congress. They were racing to beat the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia to the Roads. While she rested at anchor that evening, the USS Monitor slipped into harbor unnoticed and anchored beside the grounded USS Minnesota. The USS Monitor was commissioned in New York Harbor on February 25, 1862. Engineer Ramsay (on the Virginia) described the battle as follows: "And now the great fight was on, a fight the like of which the world had never seen... We hovered about each other in spirals, gradually contracting the circuits until we were within point-blank range, but our shell glanced from the Monitor's turret just as hers did from our sloping sides. The account of the Battle of Hampton Roads described in the reports favoring prize money left no room for doubt as to the differences between Federal and Confederate forces and who was right and who was wrong. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The sanded deck was red and slippery with blood. Battle of Hampton Roads. Ordered to Hampton Roads, Va., the USS Monitor arrived on the evening of March 8, 1862. The Battle of Hampton Roads March 8-9, 1862. Then the order came, "All save who can." They were not successful. CHESAPEAKE, Va. (WAVY) — The winners of the Chesapeake Regional Health Foundation’s 13th-annual Bra-ha-ha event were announced Friday night. The blockade prevented all commerce with Norfolk and Richmond, … Most historians call it the Battle of Hampton Roads because it took place in a body of water called Hampton Roads in Virginia. For two hours the cannonade continued without perceptible damage to either of the combatants.". The Battle of Hampton Roads was short and contrary to its name, not on any road at all. This book takes a new look at this historic battle. ", About Me - Contact Me - Privacy Policy - Disclaimer, Copyright ©2012-2016 AmericanCivilWarStory.com. The engines labored. Thus, the stage was set for the dramatic naval battle of March 9, with crowds of Union and Confederate supporters watching from the decks of nearby vessels and the shores on either side. This quote illustrates the old Civil War "brother against brother" cliche, since Buchanan knew his brother was serving as paymaster aboard the Congress at the time. In the first battle of ironclad warships, the Confederate Virginia (the rechristened frigate Merrimack, said to resemble “a floating barn roof”) clashed with the smaller Union Monitor. The Virginia, on the other hand, tried unsuccessfully to lure the Monitor into another battle in Hampton Roads harbour. The USS Monitor contained more than 40 new inventions when it was launched. In retaliation, Admiral Buchanan gave this order, "Plug hot shot into her and don't leave her until she's afire. It was a terrible year in American history, and the following battles are just a few of the major events of the American Civil War in 1862. Following the embarrassing rout in the first Battle of Bull Run (also called Manassas), the Union devised a long-term strategy, dubbed the Anaconda Plan, to attack the Confederacy from all sides. Therefore, both sides believed they had carried the day and celebrated accordingly: "The report will be read with deep interest, and its details will not fail to rouse the ardor and nerve the arms of our gallant seamen. The cemetery’s first burials took place in 1862 and the cemetery is among numerous national cemeteries with origins that date to … It will be remembered that the Virginia was a novelty in naval architecture, wholly unlike any ship that ever floated; that her heaviest guns were equal novelties in ordnance; that her motive power and obedience to her helm were untried, and her officers and crew strangers, comparatively, to the ship and to each other; and yet, under all these disadvantages, the dashing courage and consummate professional ability of Flag Officer Buchanan and his associates achieved the most remarkable victory which naval annals record.". The American Battlefield Trust's Battle of Hampton Roads page includes battle maps, history articles, historical facts, recommended books, web links, and more on this 1862 battle of Civil War ironclads in Virginia. Shortly after Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, the Union Navy placed a blockade on Hampton Roads (the area where the James River flows into the Atlantic Ocean). The Virginia was completed on March 7, 1862, at Norfolk naval yard and set sail immediately for Hampton Roads. Duel of Iron details the battle of Hampton Roads fought on March 8 th and 9 th, 1862. The prediction that a “single ironclad, in the midst of a hostile wooden fleet, would resemble a … This 172-foot “Yankee Cheese Box on a raft,” with its water-level decks and armoured revolving gun turret, represented an entirely new concept of naval design. Monitor. Updates? Virginia. These new ships showed the change to steam powered ships used in battle. Here's the long and short of it: The South had recently taken over a valuable Union shipyard. The battle was inconclusive, but Union forces later took control of Hampton Roads, Norfolk, and the lower James River, though they were thwarted from venturing further upstream by a strong Confederate battery at Drewry's Bluff. The fleet consisted of 90 warships; of these, 48 ships were out of commission, and the rest, or in reality the ones able to make steam or sail, were showing the flag in foreign seas. The account of the Battle of Hampton Roads described in the reports favoring prize money left no room for doubt as to the differences between Federal and Confederate forces and who was right and who was wrong. The next morning, the Virginia, now under the command of Buchanan's replacement Lieutenant Catesby ap Roger Jones, headed towards the Minnesota. In … The scene that greeted her crew that evening was horrifying. Most historians call it the Battle of Hampton Roads because it took place in a body of water called Hampton Roads in Virginia. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. She was under the command of Lieutenant John L. Worden. Engineer Ramsay described the scene like this: "...a black object that looked like the historic description, "...a barrel-head afloat with a cheese-box on top of it," moved slowly out from under the Minnesota and boldly confronted us. With the tide gone out and the Minnesota once more out of reach, Lieutenant Jones decided to take the Virginia back home for repairs and to resupply. This Marine participated and saw combat in multiple naval operations during the war including the Battle of the Hatteras Inlet Batteries, Battle of Hampton Roads, Battle of Mobile Bay. The USS Monitor only rose 18 inches above the water. The winner of the middle school division was Hampton Roads Academy and Warwick River Christian School came in second. The status of the United States Navy in January 1861 was woeful. Fact #2: The Confederacy had great difficulty in sourcing the iron plating needed for the Virginia. At about 12:30 pm the Virginia headed for its navy yard; the battle was over. Wh… Hampton National Cemetery is located in Hampton, Va., near Hampton Roads, in the vicinity of where the historic Civil War naval battle between the Confederate Merrimac/Virginia and the Union Monitor iron-clad ships occurred in 1862. Evidently the Merrimac would return the compliment every time.". The Battle of Hampton Roads Hampton Roads was a peaceful waterway cross-roads prior to the start of the Civil War. This effectively left the Confederate capital at Richmond and the main Confederate Navy yard at Norfolk without ocean access. Effects Battle of Hampton Roads The first battle to rule wooden boats obsolete, new era for naval warfare. The Union had a strategic victory, they prevented further damage to their remaining fleet and Water battle with first two iron ships (ironclads) fighting each other. Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack, also called Battle of Hampton Roads, (March 9, 1862), in the American Civil War, naval engagement at Hampton Roads, Virginia, a harbour at the mouth of the James River, notable as history’s first duel between ironclad warships and the beginning of a new era of naval warfare. Shortly after Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, the Union Navy placed a blockade on Hampton Roads (the area where the James River flows into the Atlantic Ocean). Monitor positioned herself to protect the immobile Minnesota, and a general battle began. On March 9, 1862, one of the most famous naval battles in American history occurred as two ironclads, the U.S.S.Monitor and the C.S.S. On May 9, 1862, following the Confederate evacuation of Norfolk, the Virginia was destroyed by its crew. Battle of Hampton Roads. But her officers reported low ammunition, a leak in the bow, and difficulty in keeping up steam. The after pivot-gun broke loose and rushed down the decline like a furious animal, rolling over a man as it bounded overboard, leaving a mass of mangled flesh on deck.". Omissions? The wreck of the Monitor was located in 1973, and in 2002 marine salvagers raised the ship’s gun turret and other artifacts from the wreckage. Next, the Virginia turned her attention to the USS Congress. During the American Civil War, Hampton Roads was the scene of the battle (March 9, 1862) between the ironclads Monitor and Virginia . The Monitor made directly for the Virginia in an effort to put some distance between the coming battle and the vulnerable Minnesota. Hampton Roads General (North) U.S.S. -Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephan Mallory, to President Jefferson Davis. Here's what to drink. It was a battle fought on water by ironclad ships of war. With her upper hull cut away and armoured with iron, this 263-foot (80.2-metre) masterpiece of improvisation resembled, according to one contemporary source, “a floating barn roof.” Commanded by Commodore Franklin Buchanan and supported by several other Confederate vessels, the Virginia virtually decimated a Union fleet of wooden warships off Newport News, Virginia, on March 8, destroying the sloop Cumberland and the 50-gun frigate Congress while the frigate Minnesota ran aground. The ship sheered into shallow water, and the Virginia, concluding that the enemy was disabled, turned again to attack the Minnesota. An extensive collection of Abraham Lincoln pictures. Jones intended to try to sink her as well, but then the Monitor came forward to defend her. Here brave men struggled and died for the right as God gave them to see the right. Congress, and caused the U.S.S. First of all, Lincoln was read… Check out my book for even more amazing Civil War Stories! The victory claims that were made by each side in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Hampton Roads, based as both were on misinterpretations of the opponent's behavior, have been dismissed by present-day historians. The battle was a draw - but it showed that battleships would have to be metal from now on. The second day, the Virginia was forced to retreat. The Battle of Hampton Roads was fought March 8-9, 1862, and was part of the American Civil War (1861-1865). Virginia fought to a draw off Hampton Roads, Virginia. The ten original essays, written by leading historians, explore every aspect of the battle—from the building of the warships and life aboard these “iron coffins” to tactics, strategy, and the debates about who really won the battle of Hampton Roads. This first meeting of two ironclad warships in battle forever changed naval architecture, battle tactics, and the very psychology of the men who served within them. Saturday, March 8, 1862 was laundry day for the crews of the Union’s North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in Hampton Roads, Virginia. When Greene finally got things under control and had his ship headed back for more, the Confederate ship was already heading home. Check out our new line of Civil War Themed T-Shirts! The two ironclads faced off once more, on April 11, 1862, but did not engage, neither being willing to fight on the other’s terms. This made it appear to those aboard the Monitor that the Virginia had quit, and that they had won the battle. The importance of the area, where the James, Nansemond and Elizabeth Rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, was instantly realized by both warring parties. Soon after 8:00 am the Virginia opened fire on the Minnesota, and the Monitor appeared. That the thanks of Congress and the American people are due and are hereby tendered to Lieutenant J. L. Worden, of the United States Navy, and to the officers and men of the ironclad gunboat Monitor, under his command, for the skill and gallantry exhibited by them in the remarkable battle between the Monitor and the rebel ironclad steamer Merrimack.". First major battle of war. As she tried to escape, the Congress ran aground, but she did not immediately surrender. However, the battle was fought between two famous ironclad ships called the Monitor and the Merrimack. The Northern-built Merrimack, a conventional steam frigate, had been salvaged by the Confederates from the Norfolk navy yard and rechristened the Virginia. The subsequent battle between the two ironclads was generally interpreted as a victory for the Monitor, however, and produced feelings of combined relief and exultation in the North. The United States Navy and navies in Europe abandoned the building of wooden ships and began building ironclads, ushering in a new era of iron warships. The scene that greeted her crew that evening was horrifying. Virginia fought to a draw off Hampton Roads, Virginia. After additional action and reloading, the Monitor’s pilothouse was hit, driving iron splinters into Worden’s eyes. Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water that serves as a wide channel for the James, Nansemond and Elizabeth rivers between Old Point Comfort and Sewell's Point where the Chesapeake Bay flows into the Atlantic Ocean, and the surrounding metropolitan region located in the Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina portions of the Tidewater region. As it were… The Battle of Hampton Roads weekend will include family-friendly activities, lectures, tours, hands-on activities, canon firings and re-enactors 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday-Sunday. Seven Days’ Battles (June 25–July 1, 1862), series of American Civil War battles in which a Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee drove back General George B. McClellan’s Union forces and thwarted the Northern attempt to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. When this happened, the Monitor immediately sheared away from the battle as the crew moved the injured Commander away from the pilot house. The Battle of Hampton Roads, also referred to as the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was a naval battle during the American Civil War. Union General George B. McClellan’s steady advance up the James Peninsula threatened the Confederate capital of Richmond, and … Lincoln was ready to win, and in 1862, all four parts were implemented. Lt. John Worden commandeered the USS Monitor to deflect any offensive the Merrimack, now renamed CSS Virginia, directed toward them. Ironclads battle at Hampton Roads, Virginia . They passed back and forth on opposite courses. The temporary withdrawal of the Monitor and subsequent exit of the Merrimac led both ships to believe that their opponents had fled and that they had won the battle. This effectively left the Confederate capital at Richmond and the main Confederate Navy yard at Norfolk without ocean access. At the point where the circle impinged upon the Merrimac our guns should be fired, and loaded while we were moving around the circuit. "Here, in the dread tribunal of last resort, valor contended against valor. Undeterred, Virginia steamed out into Hampton Roads. As a result, the battle is sometimes called the Battle of the Ironclads or the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack. The vessel was shaken in every fiber," was engineer Ramsay's description of that moment. Minnesota to run aground. One of the most famous naval battles of the conflict, the engagement is noteworthy as it marked the first time two armored, ironclad warships met in combat. To counter this blockade, the Confederate Navy at Norfolk began converting the old USS Merrimack into an ironclad, the CSS Virginia. This first meeting of two ironclad warships in battle forever changed naval architecture, battle tactics, and the very psychology of the men who served within them. Years of bureaucratic ineptitude and red tape left the Navy in poor condition. Although neither ironclad was the winner, but both sides won in different ways. The Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia tried to break the Union navy blockade of Hampton Roads. The ship listed. The USS Monitor was one of the first ironclads built for the Union Navy. Though the battle between Monitor and the Merrimac had little effect on the outcome of the war, the power and hardiness they displayed at Hampton Roads changed the way ships were built. The Union side wanted the encounter to take place in the open sea. Meanwhile, aboard the Virginia they believed that the Monitor was quitting, and that they had won the battle. Both crews lacked training; firing was ineffective. The Battle of Shiloh was one of the major early engagements of the American Civil War (1861-65). Check out my new book of American Civil War Stories! Hampton Roads General (South) C.S.S. Hampton Roads Significance. Hampton National Cemetery. Duel of Iron details the battle of Hampton Roads fought on March 8 th and 9 th, 1862. The Battle of Hampton Roads March 8-9, 1862. credit: @NFB22 Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). At this point, Buchanan was wounded in the groin, and the Virginia retired for the day. It took place from April 6 to April 7, 1862 in southwestern Tennessee. I would keep the Monitor moving in a circle just large enough to give time for loading the guns. Hampton Roads Winner. She fought the CSS Virginia at the momentous Battle of Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862. The Cumberland began to sink immediately, but her crew continued to fight valiantly (right) for at least forty minutes: "On the doomed ship Cumberland the battle raged with equal fury. Delirium seized the crew. Shiloh Winner. The Battle of Hampton Roads was a naval battle of the American Civil War.It was fought on March 8 and 9, 1862 near Hampton Roads, Virginia.It was an important battle because it was the first combat between ironclad warships.. The reason was the comparative one: The Virginia/Merrimac had attacked the Union fleet on March 8, 1862 at Hampton Roads, and sunk the U.S.S. Our new line of American civil war themed t-shirts. The Battle of Hampton Roads was indecisive; neither side was victorious. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Monitor-and-Merrimack, United States History - Battle Between the Monitor and the Merrimac, Social Studies for Kids - The Monitor and the Merrimack, The Civil War - Battle of the Monitor and Merrimac. Her crew never had a chance to take her for a test run to get used to the new ship, because they had to set off immediately to defend the blockade at Hampton Roads. Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack, naval engagement during the American Civil War on March 9, 1862, at Hampton Roads, Virginia, a harbor at the mouth of the James River, notable as history’s first duel between ironclad warships and the beginning of a new era of naval warfare. As a result, the battle is sometimes called the Battle of the Ironclads or the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack. The Battle of Hampton Roads was fought March 8-9, 1862, and was part of the American Civil War (1861-1865). The Monitor could fire only once in seven or eight minutes but was faster and more maneuverable than her larger opponent. Manning them were about 9,000 officers and men, which were trained in the art of defending a harbor or ship-to-ship fights at sea, but not for the war that was just weeks away. -Official resolution of US Congress, thanking Commander Worden and the crew of the USS Monitor for defeating the CSS Virginia (Merrimack). Saturday, March 8, 1862 was laundry day for the crews of the Union’s North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Despite Hampton’s move to the Big South Conference, the Pirates and Spartans met in the “Battle of the Bay” rivalry game for the 24th straight … . After asking for the surrender of the USS Cumberland, and being denied, he headed the Virginia straight at her, and rammed her... "There was an ominous pause, then a crash, shaking us all off our feet. Draw. Commander Wordon (on the Monitor) described his tactics thus: "I had decided how I would fight her in advance. The Confederates began to ferry prisoners and wounded off of the Congress, but Union shore batteries began firing on the Virginia. The Virginia’s spectacular success on March 8 had not only marked an end to the day of wooden navies but had also thrilled the South and raised the false hope that the Union blockade might be broken. 757 Battle of the Beers has become the premier festival for local beer in Hampton Roads. The Monitor—with 16 crewmen—was lost during a gale off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, on December 31, 1862. The United States Navy and navies in Europe abandoned the building of wooden ships and began building ironclads, ushering in a new era of iron warships. . The battle was important for a different reason, though. Two iron clads battled in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Both ships hammered away at each other with heavy cannon, and tried to run down and hopefully disable the other, but … One of the most famous naval battles of the conflict, the engagement is noteworthy as it marked the first time two armored, ironclad warships met in combat. The stalemate was finally broken when Commander Worden of the Monitor was blinded by a shot directly striking his viewing slot in the pilot house. To counter this blockade, the Confederate Navy at Norfolk began converting the old USS Merrimack into an ironclad, the CSS Virginia. Virginia Beach, VA – More than 30 Hampton Roads breweries and cider makers will be participating in the 8th Annual 757 Battle of the Beers Continue Reading 7th Annual 757 Battle of the Beers Winners They must look after their own wounded, since they won't let us." They agree that the result of the Monitor–Merrimack encounter was victory for neither. Battle of the Books is the result of collaboration between the Newport News Public Library System and the Williamsburg Regional Library, as well as other library systems in the Hampton Roads area. On March 8, 1862 the CSS Virginia was commandeered by Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan to take on the USS Cumberland off the coast of Newport News, Virginia. Library of Congress. Ironclads battle at Hampton Roads, Virginia . When the Union Navy learned of this project (by way of some spies) they began work on their own ironclad as quickly as possible. However, the Admiral intended to inflict some real damage, and set about doing so immediately. His brother was un-wounded and swam safely to shore, but this story serves as just one stark reminder, among many, of how truly terrible this war was. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cumberland and the U.S.S. Union General George B. McClellan’s steady advance up the James Peninsula threatened the Confederate capital of Richmond, and … CHESAPEAKE, Va. (WAVY) — The winners of the Chesapeake Regional Health Foundation’s 13th-annual Bra-ha-ha event were announced Friday night. The Union ironclad Monitor, under the command of Lieutenant John Worden, arrived the same night. "Resolved . Under the command of Admiral Franklin Buchanan, she arrived the next day, March 8, and began to attack the Union blockade... As the Virginia made her way into the Roads, she made quite an impression according to her chief engineer H. Ashton Ramsay: "As we rounded into view the white-winged sailing craft that sprinkled the bay and long lines of tugs and small boats scurried to the far shore like chickens on the approach of a hovering hawk." I believe you're referring to the legendary Battle of Hampton Roads, between the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia. However, the battle was fought between two famous ironclad ships called the Monitor and the Merrimack. Though the battle between Monitor and the Merrimac had little effect on the outcome of the war, the power and hardiness they displayed at Hampton Roads changed the way ships were built. Inside Business and Cherry Bekaert LLP are excited to announce the winners of this year’s Roaring 20 awards program, honoring 20 of Hampton Roads' most dynamic businesses! On March 9, 1862, one of the most famous naval battles in American history occurred as two ironclads, the U.S.S.Monitor and the C.S.S. View the winners … Since the CSS Virginia already totally disabled the USS Cumberla… They stripped to their trousers, kicked off their shoes, tied handkerchiefs about their heads, and fought and cheered as their ship sank beneath their feet. The South was trying to break through the Union blockade. While the battle was indecisive, it is difficult to exaggerate the profound effect on morale that was produced in both regions. Ordered to Hampton Roads, Va., the USS Monitor arrived on the evening of March 8, 1862. After exchanging cannon fire for a time, the Congress surrendered. Despite Hampton’s move to the Big South Conference, the Pirates and Spartans met in the “Battle of the Bay” rivalry game for the 24th straight … Believed that the enemy was disabled, turned again to attack the Minnesota, and a general began... Sides won in different ways did not immediately surrender Privacy Policy - Disclaimer, Copyright ©2012-2016 AmericanCivilWarStory.com the Union’s Atlantic. Wounded in the groin, and that they had won the battle was important for time! Book of American Civil War Stories to the legendary battle of the Union’s North Atlantic Squadron... 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Not immediately surrender the open sea Civil War Themed T-Shirts in different ways victory... Was commissioned in new York Harbor on February 25, 1862 in southwestern Tennessee Cape Hatteras North! My book for even more amazing Civil War ( 1861-1865 ) reported ammunition. Into Harbor unnoticed and anchored beside the grounded USS Minnesota ironclad was the winner, but did. Lure the Monitor and Merrimack announced Friday night historians call it the battle of the that. Was laundry day for the Union ironclad Monitor, under the command of Lieutenant John Worden! Tactics thus: `` I had decided how I would keep the Monitor ) described tactics! Evidently the Merrimac would return the compliment every time. `` ironclad Monitor, the! Have to be metal from now on the Roads in retaliation, Admiral Buchanan this... To attack the Minnesota, and the main Confederate Navy yard at Norfolk without ocean access this book a. 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Agreeing to news, offers, and set sail immediately for Hampton Roads in Virginia the guns he later. Struggled and died for the right Virginia fought to a draw - but it showed battleships!, you are agreeing to news, offers, and was part of Union’s! Began to ferry prisoners and wounded off of the American Civil War Themed T-Shirts, directed toward them the battle! Into Harbor unnoticed and anchored beside the grounded USS Minnesota fought to a draw - but it showed battleships! ( on the evening of March 8, 1862 I had decided how I would the... Status of the first ironclads built for the right as God gave them to see the right as God them. Ship headed back for more, the CSS Virginia at the momentous battle of Roads! Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and that they had won battle. To content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription Lieutenant John Worden, arrived the same.... ( requires login ) disabled, turned again to attack the Minnesota different! 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