NR J Urban Health. and Dept. 1 The utility of geographic information systems (GIS) in rapid epidemiological assessments following weather-related disasters: methodological issues based on the Tropical Storm Allison Experience. Published by Experts. When combined with uncertainty in the historical record and the relative paucity of primary research focusing on cyclone impacts in heavily affected Asian region, conclusions that can be drawn about cyclones impacts on human populations are limited. ⭐Cyclones are dangerous because they produce destructive winds, heavy rainfall with flooding and damaging storm. 5 2006;37(2):213-7. Characterizes factors associated with cyclone-related mortality and identifies prevention strategies, Examines mortality following 1991 cyclone and effects of cyclone preparedness, Assesses injuries and illnesses among care seekers at health care facilities, Describes public health impact on inland areas of North Carolina, Characterizes hurricane related injury and morbidity in Louisiana, Describes hurricane related population-based mortality rates, Examines hurricane-related mortality risk, Examines damage, mortality, and displacement in Dade County, Florida, Injuries and health needs of affected communities in Virgin Islands, Florida, Louisiana and Georgia, Summarizes and characterizes hurricane-attributed deaths in Florida and US Virgin Islands, Examines demographics effects in Dade County Florida, Uses medical chart data to characterize hurricane related increases in injuries and morbidity, Describe deaths indirectly caused by the hurricane, Monitoring of illness, injury and death related to the hurricane and subsequent flooding, Assesses the impact of Hurricane Mitch on a small Honduran community, Spatial analysis of destruction caused by Hurricane 07B, Assesses health and medical needs of the affected population, Assessment of the post-hurricane incidence of traumatic brain injury in children, Assesses causes of and factors with associated with mortality, Assesses post-event injuries and injury prevention strategies, Documents facility-based surveillance efforts of post-hurricane effects, Examines demographic and epidemiologic risk factors for hurricane outcomes, Hurricane-related emergency department visits and storm impact on hospital admission rates, Utility of geographic information systems (GIS) in rapid epidemiological assessments, Examines demographics and health needs of evacuees in Houston area shelters. 0 South Med J. Zimbabwe, like its neighbours Mozambique and Malawi, is reeling from the effects of Cyclone Idai, which caused loss of lives and left a trail of destruction. MMWR, 198917 0.937 Faul, 201179 0 10-99 deaths vs. no deaths While minimal data on cyclone-related injuries and mortality is available from less developed settings, it can be presumed that developing nations also bear the burden of cyclone-attributable injury where the frequency and severity of injuries are inversely related to degree of physical protection 69. The destruction from a tropical cyclone, such as a hurricane or tropical storm, depends mainly on its intensity, its size, and its location. 34 Each effect differs on how it … Facility, ER visits When the median and 5% trimmed mean for injuries were applied to the remaining 568 events with fatalities but no injury reporting, it was estimated that between 28,400 and 113,600 unreported cyclone related injuries may have occurred between 1980 and 2009. The World Health Organization regions of the Western Pacific (WPRO) and the Americas (AMRO) accounted for more than 80% of all reported events. NR Norris, 201066 Facility, ER and outpatient 1.04 (.11-1.97)) 3 falls, 3 fire, 3 vehicle accidents, 3 electrocutions, 2 plane crash, 2 trauma, 1 lightening strike, 1 asphyxia, 1 clean-up (1) Damage to human structures – Earthquakes cause great damage to human structures such as buildings, roads, rails, factories, dams, bridges etc, and thus cause heavy damage to human property. 20,160,878 Communication systems are badly affected due to cyclones. 16 14 7 electrocutions Hurricane Katrina, 2005 In: Hogan DE, Burstein JL, eds. 3 Uscher-Pines, 200963 When the two sources were combined, information on deaths was reported in 97.1% of events and deaths occurred in 89.4% of cyclones between 1980 and 2009. 2 motor vehicle accidents, 1 electrocution NR Hurricane Ike,Texas, 2008 Andrew, 1992 1.41 (0.49-4.04) Not applicable In more developed countries an increased proportion of deaths and injuries were observed in the aftermath of cyclones as a result of improved early warning systems and evacuation. No deaths were attributed to the cyclone, however assessments indicated that over 2,000 houses were damaged or destroyed . PNAS 2009;106(18):7357-7360. 1996;33(2)265-75. Not reported 965 and Dept. 290,654 Residents had a higher proportion of falls and motor vehicle accidents and a lower proportion of unintentional injuries as compared to relief workers. Examines demographics and health needs of evacuees in Houston area shelters In: Hossain H, Dodge CP, Abed FH, eds. Analyses were performed using Stata Statistical Software, Version 11.0 9. 1975;57(5):274-5. ... human life and to the built environment. A total of 4,873 articles were retained for abstract review. 17 Americas 0 44.8% Evaluation of the health effects of the cyclone and tidal wave in Bangladesh. A total of 558 cyclone articles were retained for article review; 193 articles focusing on the impacts of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement were prioritized for abstraction. Most articles reported that the majority of injuries were minor but it was not possible to aggregate injury data due to the different study designs, reporting methods, and data sources. The female mortality rate was 71/1000 as compared to 15/1000 among males ages 20-44. 0.59 (.25-1.13) Not reported Injury rate of 3.8%; risk of injury increased with damage and decreased with evacuation. 716 unintentional injuries including cuts, blunt trauma, burns and environmental exposures (36%), 464 falls (23%), 311 bites/stings (15%), 145 vehicle crash injuries (7%), 42 intentional injuries (2%), 27 other toxic exposure (1%), 14 CO poision (1%) and 299 unknown (15%). Isabel, 2003 NR Death rates were higher among females, and this was more pronounced in the young and old. Cyclones are referred to as typhoons in the Pacific Ocean, cyclones in the Indian Ocean and hurricanes in America. 1130 Smith, 199631 About 65-75 cyclones arise in the world every year. MMWR, 200651 NR Multiple data sources were sought to ensure a complete listing of events and to allow for cross checking. Examines demographics effects in Dade County Florida June 17, 2009. Das, 200961 Those who evacuated prior to the storm had a 26% injury rate as compared to 37% of those who did not evacuate. Analysis of mortality to identify modifiable risk factors and injury prevention measures. x National Weather Service: JetStream – Online School for Weather. NR Source: The Tragedy of Cyclone Idai and its Effects – The Zimbabwean Hurricanes Elena & Gloria, 1985 2001;16(3):166-71. Location(s) 1 motor vehicle accident, 7 no cause reported Describes hurricane related population-based mortality rates Title screening was performed to identify articles that were unrelated to natural disasters or human populations. 28 (7.6%) Examines hurricane-related mortality risk -27.30% The levels of intensity of these storms range from tropical depression (winds <17 meters per second), to tropical storm (winds 18-32 m/s), and cyclone (>33 m/s) 4. A tropical cyclone is a non-frontal storm system that is characterized by a low pressure center, spiral rain bands and strong winds. Epidemiology of tropical cyclones: the dynamics of disaster, disease, and development. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1989 38(44):754, 759-62. Bangladesh 64 (41.3%) Overall, 412,644 deaths were reported in the historical event review, the vast majority from EM-DAT. By decade, 42,5% (n=459) of events occurred in the 2000s, 29.6% (n=320) in the 1990s, and 27.9% (n=301) in the 1980s. NR 23 x 0 WHO Region Hurricane Hugo, 1999 410-502-2628. NR *Best estimate figures are based on the highest reported number of deaths or injuries in an event from either EM-DAT or NHC; homeless and total affected populations are reported only by EM-DAT. Chowdhury, 199322 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 60% Human vulnerability to cyclones will increase in future years due to population growth, urbanization, increased coastal settlement, poverty, and changing weather patterns which is associated with an increase in the number of high intensity cyclones. MMWR, 199630 Population based post-disaster assessment Not reported Hurricane Hugo, 1999 1992;16:266–71. 21 Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Hurricane 07B, India, 1996 Disaster medicine. Not reported Injury. 73% (40/55) of deaths were among males. NR GIS based post-disaster assessment Bangladesh 77% (24/32) of the deceased were male. Diacon D. Typhoon resistant housing in the Philippines: the Core Shelter Project. of Health, 86 trauma or injury, 45 non-accidental, 15 CO poisoning, 9 drowning, 7 burns/inhalation, 13 carbon monoxide exposure, 8 cardiovascular failure, 28 multiple causes. 14,612 (16,653) 0 375 Puerto Rico, Florida, N Carolina, Alabama, Georgia 16 x Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 17 households Marilyn & Opal, 1995 The proportion of events with mid- to high mortality levels decreased in the 1980s and 1990s, but during the 2000s, the relative risk ratios of mid- and high level mortality events were statistically similar to the 1970s. 6 motor vehicle crashes, 3 head/ neck injuries, 1 trauma, 1 heart attack, 7 in power outages Only three articles presented injury data on storms outside the United States 11,62,65, reflecting the paucity of information from less developed countries and a need for additional research in cyclone injury epidemiology in these regions. Noji EK. 10 Mortality among females was higher than males for all age groups; for females, mortality increased with age. Mortality from Hurricane Andrew. In total, the 1.9% (n=20) of events with mortality >1000 accounted for 83.9% of all cyclone deaths, suggesting that cyclone mortality is concentrated in infrequent and extreme events. 59% of injuries were tree related; most patients had severe and multiple injuries and one-third were admitted. Mortality among females was higher than males for all age groups; for females, mortality increased with age. Typhoon Saomei, China, 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between cyclone characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Assesses causes of and factors with associated with mortality Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Ragan, 200860 . Das S and Vincent J. Mangrove protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. x Medical Examiner, Dade County, Florida 986 181 South East Asian Characteristic 13 carbon monoxide exposure, 8 cardiovascular failure, 28 multiple causes 38.2%, *direct deaths were assumed to have occurred during the event; **trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma, crush injuries, and deaths from falling objects/debris; ***excluded from mortality totals to avoid double counting of deaths report in other sources, Table 6: Primary research articles describing cyclone related deaths sex (N=11) Reported by NHC Siddique, 198714 Observational cohort, ER patients Waring S, Zakos-Feliberti A, Wood R, et al. Included abstracts were coded for event type, timeframe, region, subject of focus, and vulnerable population focus. 2004 & 2005 hurricanes Tropical cyclones cause heavy rainfall and landslides. Earthquakes leaves permanent scars on people’s life. 51 of Health Facility, ER and outpatient 145 Experiences of hurricane Katrina evacuees in Houston shelters: implications for future planning. Medical examiner/corner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Hugo—South Carolina. Smith SK, McCarty C. Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew. Longmire AW and Ten Eyck RP. 7 motor vehicle accidents, 2 fire, 1 hypothermia, 1 fall, 1 unreported Tropical cyclone, also called typhoon or hurricane, an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain.Drawing energy from the sea surface and maintaining its strength as long as it remains over warm water, a tropical cyclone generates winds that exceed 119 km (74 miles) per hour. The three population based surveys estimated injury rates between 3.8 and 4.5% 37,62,66. The two primary data sources were the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) 7 and the National Hurricane Center (NHC)8 because they included information on human impacts. In the Eastern Pacific basin the season begins two weeks early on May 15th. Comparison of pre- and post- Katrina mortality rates and causes 30 United Nations Development Programme. National Weather Service: National Hurricane Center. Examines mortality factors in deaths reported by medical examiners in southern Florida. Reference Age was associated with increased mortality risk in numerous studies where both children 20,21,22, and older adults 22,57,58,60, experienced disproportionate mortality. Hurricane Andrew, 1992 The number of events reported annually by NHC and EM-DAT increased over time as did the total number of events; NHC reported a lower number of events because their focus area is the Americas (Figure 2). Residents had a higher proportion of falls and motor vehicle accidents and a lower proportion of unintentional injuries as compared to relief workers. NR The systematic review is reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. x 2005;71(3):194-7. Documents hurricane-related causes of injury using an active surveillance system 109 (29.5%) x Hurricane Andrew, 1992 1993; 36(7):903-14. NR Effects of Cyclones. 14 NR Death rates were higher among females, and this was more pronounced in the young and old. develop me: Tapiwa Gomo. NR 80 lacerations/wounds (34%), 79 sprain/strain/fracture (34%), 37 motor-vehicle related injuries (16%), 38 other (16%). 52 Publication NR 36 A cyclone is a low pressure area; where low pressure inside and high pressure outside the cyclone. Tel. Mahajani AG. 0 A historical database of significant cyclones from 1980 to mid-2009 was created from publicly available data. Centers for Disease Control. NR x Brodie, 200645 ⭐Main effects of tropical cyclones include heavy rain, strong wind, large storm surges near landfall, and tornadoes. Brunkard, 200858 0.97 (0.91-1.04) Charley, 2004 Uscher-Pines L, Vernick J, Curriero F. Disaster related injuries in the period of recovery: the effect of prolonged displacement on risk of injury in older adults. MMWR, 199629 7 184 cuts/lacerations/puncture wounds (49%), 49 sprain/strain/ fracture (13%), 46 contusion/ impact (12%), 24 animal/insect bite (6%), 23 falls (6%), 23 rashes (6%), 15 crush injuries (4%), 10 burns (3%), 1 electrocution (<1%), and 62 other (17%). 650 NR Not reported The additional review then identified eleven articles through October 2012 that met the inclusion criteria for abstraction in the mortality and injury review. NR Deaths by Sex New York, NY: John S. Swift Company, 2004. NR 89.40% Florida Table 7: Summary of Primary Research Articles with Injury Findings (n=27) Philen, 1990***18 16 2000 Hurricane Andrew, 1992 Shelter beds should be created to check soil erosion and speed of winds. 0.073 2.89 (1.18-7.03) Marilyn & Opal, 1995 Glossary of NHC Terms. There is no guarantee . 0 16.80% NR 0 MMWR, 200650 41 Injuries to the elbows/wrist/hand/finger (rate = 38.9; 95% CI = 28.3-52.2), face/trunk/shoulder/upper arm (rate = 31.8; 95% CI = 22.3-44.1), and leg/foot/toe (rate =151.2; 95% CI = 129.4-175.7). Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones. 0 . Longmire AW, Burch J, Broom LA. 79.60% ii. With the green shelter belt gone, the houses in the area where he resides have been, in the last two months, getting warmer. v. When a cyclone does occur, rescue and relief operations should be in place. 1980 801 (74.2%) ⭐The heavy rains from tropical cyclones can also cause flooding. ER Depts, Mississippi x MMWR, 200651 RRR (95%CI) MMWR, 199630 The leading explanations for regional differences in mortality is the size of the at risk population and the capacity for pre-event evacuation. Hurricane Andrew-related injuries and illnesses, Louisiana, 1992. Tropical Cyclone. Regional impact of Hurricane Isabel on emergency departments in coastal southeastern Virginia. 2007;37(4):482-501. The mortality estimate presented in this study is consistent with recent estimates in other studies 67, but the numbers injured and displaced are likely gross underestimates given the low frequency with which these figures are reported. 26 (16.8%) Guill CK, Shandera WX. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 45(4):81-5. Shen, 200962 36 MMWR, 200542 2.9% 0.182 Table 4: Multinomial logistic regression results for mortality in tropical cyclones* Describes public health impact on inland areas of North Carolina ER Depts, S Carolina x 26.20% 18 Hurricane Iniki, 1992 NR Hurricane Ike, 2008 4 In the systematic literature review, 79% of the 946 included deaths where storm phase was reported occurred during the impact period. These events cause damage and economic losses from a Florida Medical Examiner and Dept. Mangrove ecosystems and mortality reduction in cyclones GDP per capita Am Surg. Faul M, Weller N, Jones J .Injuries after hurricane Katrina among Gulf Coast evacuees sheltered in Houston, Texas. 1049 Injuries accounted for 15.7% and 23.7% of visits at civilian and military free care sites; among service members, injuries accounted for 36.2% of visits. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 By Cause Department of Regional Development and Environment, Organization of American States. 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